BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention

Potential Community Health Intervention

Climatic variability is reflected in extreme weather and climatic events including heat waves, cyclones, and floods. These and other climate-change-related (BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention) disasters, such wildfires, continue to significantly increase human illness and mortality rates and have a negative impact on mental health and general wellbeing. The negative health effects of severe events have decreased over the last few decades, but this trend could be reversed by climate change and an increase in the number of people living in risky areas. The frequency and intensity of many extreme events, as well as the likelihood of compound events, are rising due to long-term changes in Earth’s energy balance.

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Climate Resilient Health Systems

 Building climate-resilient health systems could help avert many of the health risks associated with these events, even though most of them cannot be totally avoided with enhanced readiness, reaction, recuperation, and risk reduction. The identification of priority activities to successfully minimize risks, such as disaster risk management and more resilient infrastructure, can be achieved through the conduct of vulnerability and adaptation assessments and the development of health system adaptation plans. Since there is an immediate risk, action must be taken.

Introduction

2019 saw 396 disasters worldwide, 1 which claimed 11,755 lives, impacted 95 million more, and cost close to US$130 billion (Google Scholar.). With 40% of the occurrences, 45% of the deaths, and 74% of all afflicted individuals, Asia was the most severely hit continent. 68% of the individuals affected globally were due to floods and storms. The frequency and intensity of many extreme weather and climate events are changing due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, land use change, and other activities affecting the global energy balance; some regions are seeing an increase in heat waves, floods, and droughts (IPCC, 2020). 

Impact by climate change

There is also an increase in events that are impacted by climate change, like wildfires.2019 saw 396 disasters worldwide, 1 that claimed 11,755 lives, impacted 95 million more, and cost approximately $302 billion USD (US Agency Int. Dev. 2020). With 40% of the occurrences, 45% of the deaths, and 74% of all afflicted individuals, Asia was the most severely hit continent. 68% of the individuals affected globally were due to floods and storms.

The frequency and intensity of many extreme weather and climate events are changing due to anthropogenic greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, land use change, and other activities affecting the global energy balance; some regions are seeing an increase in heat waves, floods, and droughts (Intergov. Panel Clim. Change 2019). 

Disaster

A disaster is widely understood to be an abrupt, catastrophic event that exceeds a community’s or society’s capacity to recover through its own resources and impairs its ability to operate (IFRC (Int. Fed. Red Cross Red Crescent Soc.) 2020). Extreme impacts, such a significant jump in mortality, can emerge in a community or region without the need for an extreme event to occur; rather, an extreme impact might result from a moderately strong event that happens in a highly vulnerable population. Conversely, when communities are prepared, an extreme occurrence may not have an equally devastating impact.

OUTRAGEOUS ACCIDENTS IMPACTED BY CLIMATE CHANGE

With significant regional warming variations, the global land-surface air temperature has increased by 1.53°C during the preindustrial era of 1850–1900. This increase is significantly greater than the 0.87°C recorded warming over land and ocean combined . Climate models predict significant variations in local climate features, such as extremes. The use of detection and attribution analytical techniques is growing in the effort to ascertain how climate change affects the frequency and/or severity of extreme events.

For instance, Southeast Texas had widespread flooding in mid-September 2019 due to Tropical Storm Imelda’s intense rainfall, which affected an estimated 6.6 million people and resulted in over 1,000 rescues as well as 5 fatalities (, Sebastian A et al. 2019). In most land regions, warming between 1850–1900 has led to an increase in the frequency, intensity, and length of extreme events. 

Observations

This conclusion was drawn in the 2019 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Climate Change and Land and included the following observations:

  1. Globally, the severity of heavy precipitation occurrences grew.
  2. Certain regions—the Mediterranean, West Asia, much of Africa, South America, and Northeastern Asia—saw an increase in both the frequency and severity of droughts.
  3. In combination with climatic variability and human activity, desertification has been linked to higher land-surface air temperatures, higher evapotranspiration, and lower levels of precipitation in various dryland regions, such as sub-Saharan Africa, portions of East and Central Asia, and Australia.
  4. In many dryland regions, including the Arabian Peninsula and the larger Middle East and Central Asia, changes in land use and land cover as well as climate-related factors have contributed to a rise in the frequency and severity of dust storms during the past few decades.

Risks to the health system and population health from extreme events influenced by climate change

The number of fatalities from all disasters varies greatly year over year; throughout the past ten years, the average death toll from disasters has been 60,000, or 0.1% of all deaths worldwide (Ritchie H, Roser M. 2014), with an uneven but generally downward trend. While the events may not have been preventable, a large portion of the death toll can be averted with better forecasts and early warnings, more robust infrastructure, and enhanced disaster risk management.

The majority of these deaths occurred in a small number of severe disasters. Climate change, however, raises the possibility that future occurrences will be too big or intense for adequate planning. The dangers to public health and the health system posed by extreme weather events including wildfires, droughts, floods, and high temperatures are outlined in the following sections. A discussion of the mental health concerns linked with these extreme events influenced by climate change follows.

Elevated outside temperatures

High ambient temperatures can have a variety of negative health effects, such as discomfort, serious illnesses that need hospitalization, mortality, and changes to work schedules, leisure activities, and other activities.

Heat wave-related morbidity and mortality

Since the 1950s, there have been more hot days and nights on a worldwide scale than cold days and nights ( Bea RG et al. 2005). Heat-related illnesses (such as heat exhaustion, heat syncope, and heat stroke) and fatalities are closely linked to rising temperatures and human health; each person’s risk is mostly influenced by their exposure, susceptibility, and location. The ability to withstand heat varies greatly between populations and geographical areas. Depending on personal characteristics, the local climate, and the intensity of heat exposure, the human body can physically adapt to heat to a certain amount. 

Workplace safety

Working in hot conditions increases the risk of physiological heat strain (Flouris AD, Dinas PC, Ioannou LG, Nybo L, Havenith G et al. 2018) and other heat-related illnesses. Young, otherwise healthy workers who perform strenuous physical labor may also die from exertional heat stroke . According to a global meta-analysis conducted by Flouris et al. based on 11,582 workers across 9 studies, those working a single shift in heat stress conditions were four times more likely to experience occupational heat strain than those working in thermoneutral conditions. Employees exposed to point heat sources and poor ventilation indoors are also at danger. 

Recreation

Elevated temperatures have the potential to negatively impact individuals participating in outdoor sports and leisure activities, posing an increasing obstacle for the sports sector (Orr M, Inoue Y. 2019). Exertion-related heat disorders result in thousands of incapacitating health consequences each year, and heat is one of the maCasa DJ, DeMartini JK, Bergeron MF, Csillan D, in causes of sudden mortality among athletes (Eichner ER et al. 2015.). Weather and climate data should be incorporated into the decision-making process for event schedules and venue selections for large events that are subject to excessive heat, such as the Tokyo Olympics.

Dry Spells

With rising global temperatures and shifting patterns of precipitation, droughts are occurring more frequently and with greater intensity. Climate change is predicted to further exacerbate these trends and the threats they bring ( Brown S et al. 2018). Droughts have impacted approximately a billion people globally in the last 20 years . Given that droughts in Africa have caused widespread migration, conflict, and catastrophic hunger, the continent is ideally suited to study the effects of drought on human health and society . Since 1980, droughts that are considered billion-dollar disasters in the United States have been estimated to have killed 3,865 people, the majority of which were brought on by heat waves that coincided with the drought ( (Natl. Cent. Environ. Inf 2020). 

Droughts

Droughts and health outcomes can have complex and challenging-to-monitor causation pathways since it might be challenging to define when a drought ends and begins . The most often recognized mechanism is a decrease in the amount and quality of water available for societal uses when pollution concentrations rise . Many freshwater viruses in the perfect environment created by stagnant, warm waters resulting from drought ( Thomas O 2009).

 Floods

Over two million people died and just under four million cases of sickness were caused by 10,009 extreme weather events that resulted in disasters between 1969 and 2018, according to the Emergency Events Database . Between 1969 and 2018, the most frequent extreme weather events globally were floods (47%) and storms (30%), with a growing trend. Over the world, storms accounted for 39% of direct weather-related deaths, followed by droughts (34%), and floods (16%). Following the start of flooding, drowning is the most frequent cause of death 

Conclusion – BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention

Many forms of extreme weather and climate events will become more frequent and intense over the next few decades, which might have a major effect on global health care systems and population populations. Evaluating the efficacy of integrated disaster risk management and adaptation methods can be facilitated by conducting thorough research before to, during, and following disasters.

This research can also improve assessments of population health and health system vulnerabilities and capacities . Examples of such techniques that can be implemented at a low cost include early warning systems at the city level, community intervention programs , occupational health treatments at the person level (Takakura J, Fujimori S, Takahashi K, Hijioka Y, Hasegawa T et al. 2017), and health facility resilience building initiatives. Expanding the evidence base for further health interventions that can lower the health hazards of extreme events at a reasonable cost is necessary.

References

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Ebi, K. L., Vanos, J., Baldwin, J. W., Bell, J. E., Hondula, D. M., Errett, N. A., Hayes, K., Reid, C. E., Saha, S., Spector, J., & Berry, P. (2021). Extreme Weather and Climate Change: Population Health and Health System Implications. Annual Review of Public Health, 42(1), 293–315. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-publhealth-012420-105026

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: IPCC. (2020). An IPCC Special Report on Climate change, desertification, Land degradation, Sustainable Land management, Food security, and Greenhouse Gas Fluxes in Terrestrial Ecosystems Climate Change and Land Summary for Policymakers WG I WG II WG III. https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/4/2020/02/SPM_Updated-Jan20.pdf

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: CRED (Cent. Res. Epidemiol. Disasters), USAID (US Agency Int. Dev.) 2020. Disaster year in review 2019. Cred Crunch Newsl 58: Cent. Res. Epidemiol. Disasters Brussels: https://cred.be/sites/default/files/CC58.pdf

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: IPCC (Intergov. Panel Clim. Change) 2019. Summary for policymakers. Climate change and land: an IPCC special report on climate change, desertification, land degradation, sustainable land management, food security, and greenhouse gas fluxes in terrestrial ecosystems PR Shukla, J Skea, E Calvo Buendia, V Masson-Delmotte, H-O Pörtner et al.3–36 Rep., Intergov. Panel Clim. Change Geneva: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/4/2020/02/SPM_Updated-Jan20.pdf

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: IFRC (Int. Fed. Red Cross Red Crescent Soc.) 2020. What is a disaster?. IFRC https://www.ifrc.org/en/what-we-do/disaster-management/about-disasters/what-is-a-disaster/

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Munich Re 2019. NatCatSERVICE: the Natural Catastrophe Loss Database Munich, Ger. retrieved Novemb. 28. https://www.munichre.com/en/risks/extreme-weather.html#Explore%20our%20solutions

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Flanagan PX, Mahmood R, Umphlett NA, Haacker E, Ray C et al. 2020. A hydrometeorological assessment of the historic 2019 flood of Nebraska, Iowa, and South Dakota. Bull. Am. Meteorol. Soc. 101:6E817–29

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Flouris AD, Dinas PC, Ioannou LG, Nybo L, Havenith G et al. 2018. Workers’ health and productivity under occupational heat strain: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Lancet Planet. Health 2:12e521–31

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Orr M, Inoue Y. 2019. Sport versus climate: introducing the climate vulnerability of sport organizations framework. Sport Manag. Rev. 22:4452–63

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Casa DJ, DeMartini JK, Bergeron MF, Csillan D, Eichner ER et al. 2015. National Athletic Trainers’ Association position statement: exertional heat illnesses. J. Athl. Train. 50:9986–1000 https://scholar.google.com/scholar_lookup?title=Disaster+year+in+review+2019&volume=58&publication_year=2020

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Hoegh-Guldberg O, Jacob D, Taylor M, Bindi M, Brown S et al. 2018. Impacts of 1.5°C global warming on natural and human systems. Global warming of 1.5°C: an IPCC special report on the impacts of global warming of 1.5°C above pre-industrial levels and related global greenhouse gas emission pathways, in the context of strengthening the global response to the threat of climate change V Masson-Delmotte, P Zhai, HO Pörtner, D Roberts, J Skea, et al 175–311 Rep., Intergov. Panel Clim. Change Geneva: https://www.ipcc.ch/site/assets/uploads/sites/2/2019/06/SR15_Full_Report_High_Res.pdf

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: NOAA (Natl. Ocean. Atmos. Adm.) NCEI (Natl. Cent. Environ. Inf.) 2020. Billion-dollar weather and climate disasters: overview. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Centers for Environmental Information https://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/billions/

BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention: Delpla I, Jung AV, Baures E, Clement M, Thomas O 2009. Impacts of climate change on surface water quality in relation to drinking water production. Environ. Int. 35:81225–33

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