BHA 4108 Assessment 3 Recommend a Strategy

Recommend a Strategy

The focus of SARS-CoV-2 public health initiatives (BHA 4108 Assessment 3 Recommend a Strategy) in Europe, North America, and Australia is now on teaching people how to “live with the virus.” Nevertheless, the shift of COVID-19 from a pandemic to an endemic illness does not guarantee that severe morbidity and mortality will be fully avoided.

Other Assessment:
BHA 4108 Assessment 2 Potential Community Health Intervention

No matter what management plans are implemented, COVID-19 is going to continue to pose a serious risk to the health of a lot of people. Which populations and which nations will remain most impacted is the question. As of December 31, 2021, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the COVID-19 pandemic had killed roughly 14.9 million people globally (13.3 million to 16.6 million) (World Health Organization, 2021). 

In addition to the immediate deaths and illnesses caused by COVID-19, as well as the long-term health effects on certain individuals, the pandemic and the public health response to it have resulted in many forms of collateral damage. This has enormous effects on the global economy as well as people’s mental health and general well-being. The cancellation of procedures and lengthening of wait periods for various services has a highly disruptive effect on the healthcare system, which will take a very long time to recover from. 

Risk management for population health as we adapt to COVID-19

It is entirely surprising that a new virus could surface in 2020 and start a pandemic. Pathogens have a shared past with humans and will always be there since they have evolved to coexist with human populations. It doesn’t take much historical reflection to realize how important they are to our daily existence. Pandemics of influenza, such the Spanish flu (1918–1919), which killed up to 50 million people, and the Asian flu (1956–1957), which may have killed up to 4 million people, are the most obvious parallels to COVID-19 (WHO Global Influenza Programme & World Health Organization, 2009).

Even though influenza is already widespread worldwide, the WHO still estimated that it kills between 250,000 and 500,000 people annually. annually before 2020, with the elderly, people with long-term illnesses, and other vulnerable groups being disproportionately affected (World Health Organization, 2017). 

Additionally, from 1981 to the present, the number of deaths from HIV and AIDS has drastically decreased; from 1.7 million annually in the mid-2000s to 680,000 in 2020, the majority of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa (World Health Organization, n.d.). Unhealthily, we’ve come to believe that the war against infectious diseases is won, although this is obviously untrue. There have been and will continue to be novel pathogens, and their existence and emergence are essential components of human history.

Vaccinations as a means of protection – BHA 4108 Assessment 3 Recommend a Strategy

Clearly, the most effective method we have found to defend against these infections is vaccination.. These vaccinations are quite effective at preventing serious illnesses, hospital stays, and fatalities, even if they do not offer 100% protection against infection. Millions of lives have been saved globally thanks to the development of these vaccines. But even in this case, there have already been notable differences in vaccination uptake within Canada and, more notably, between nations. Notably, because to restricted access to immunizations, sizable populations in low- and middle-income nations continue to be at risk of serious illness and death from COVID-19.

Additional measures of public health

The virus might be stopped from spreading before mass vaccinations were implemented by enforcing mask laws, restricting public meetings, ordering people to stay at home, doing thorough testing, and tracing their contacts. Since the majority of people in Canada and many other wealthy nations have had vaccinations, many governments have scaled back or removed the majority of these additional precautions as we move toward coexisting with the virus in its endemic form. Those under 70 years old who are well immunized and do not have any other risk factors have a low chance of developing a major illness. On the other hand, COVID-19 symptoms are unpredictable and differ significantly between people. 

Public health organizations

Public health organizations have already started to monitor the epidemic less closely, at least in terms of counting cases, and have instead focused more on keeping track of COVID-19-related hospitalizations, admissions to intensive care units, and fatalities. Weekly monitoring reports, which are more in line with surveillance for other endemic respiratory illnesses like influenza, have also essentially replaced the daily reports of these metrics and press conferences. Whether this change is being made too soon is still to be seen.

Each new variation that has surfaced to date has had lower rates of morbidity and mortality along with higher levels of transmissibility. In the meantime, vaccination and natural immunity have been contributing to a steady increase in population-level immunity. It will be crucial to keep an eye on these patterns when new waves emerge. The public’s enthusiasm for these daily life-impairing limitations seems to have diminished after two years of varied degrees of restrictions. 

Public Health Response Strategy for Continuous COVID-19 Management

At the end of March 2022, the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Public Health Response Plan for Ongoing Management of COVID-19 was issued by the Canadian government in Version 3 (Government of Canada, 2022). With the understanding that COVID-19 may continue to evolve differently across the nation and that this will probably result in future spikes in activity that may call for adjustments in the public health response, this document offers guidelines for controlling the virus going forward. It will be necessary for vaccination laws and available vaccines to change in tandem with the virus. Along with identifying what levels of morbidity and mortality the public will accept, the plan also identifies key areas of uncertainty that need closer observation. 

These include how COVID-19 will interact with the anticipated return of seasonal respiratory viruses, which have been mostly absent from our environment for the past two years, and how much the public will support more stringent public health measures if necessary. Whatever surveillance and control measures are used, we must pay close attention to the glaring disparities in health outcomes that emerged during earlier COVID-19 rounds. Age- and comorbidity-related inequities are commonplace in our health care systems. COVID-19, on the other hand, made it abundantly evident how significant differences pertaining to socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, such race and ethnicity, are. 

Psychological issues arose as a result of the covid-19 epidemic

Almost half of the general population said the COVID-19 epidemic had a major psychological impact on them. Poor sleep quality (40%) was the most prevalent concern reported by respondents, followed by stress (34%) and psychological discomfort (34%). COVID-19 patients had the largest burden of psychological illness, followed by healthcare staff and the general population. Higher psychological morbidities in population subgroups are frequently seen during pandemics due to the widespread incidence of the disease, a rise in cases and fatalities, but these observations must be measured.

 In the past, during the epidemics of the Ebola virus, SARS, H1N1 influenza, and middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), similar circumstances with increased psychological morbidities were also discovered (Brooks et al., 2020). Similar to other outbreaks, there was a concerning increase in the incidence of psychological morbidity among the patients as opposed to medical professionals or the general population (Lee et al., 2007).

At least one of the several psychological morbidities, such as depression, anxiety, stress, or sleep issues, was present in more than half of the SARS, MERS, or Ebola patients (Chua et al., 2004; Keita et al., 2017; Jeong et al., 2016). Among the main causes of this high burden among the patients are stigma, discrimination, food insecurity, death rate, and danger perception.

Healthcare Personnel

Healthcare personnel had the highest burden of psychological illness as compared to the general public, following patients. Previous studies conducted during epidemics have also revealed that the prevalence of psychological issues among healthcare personnel is much greater than that of the general population (Ji et al., 2017; Lee et al., 2018; Lin et al., 2007; Styra et al., 2008). According to the World Health Organization, there is a major global shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) due to stockpiling, panic purchasing, abuse, and escalating demand (World Health Organization, 2020d).

 PPE availability is therefore essential to the mental health of healthcare professionals in order to keep them from contracting an infection and spreading it to others. They will be in danger without it, and their physical and mental health will be negatively impacted. The risk of contracting an illness exists even in environments with sufficient personal protective equipment (PPE) and rigorous training prior to managing any patients. In addition to worries about their own safety, the safety of their loved ones, the deaths of their own coworkers, long work hours, and home supplies, they may experience psychological distress due to ethical concerns regarding the rationing of ventilators for the sick (Menon and Padhy, 2020).


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