BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry

Evolution of the Hospital Industry: A Comparative Analysis

The healthcare sector has experienced a notable shift (BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry) throughout the years. Hospitals were once intended to be havens for the sick, old, destitute, and orphaned. However, over time, they have grown into enormous establishments that serve a wide range of patient requirements. This study will compare these components throughout three major historical periods: the 1800s, the 1960s, and the present. It will also examine how many aspects of hospital care have changed over time, such as the atmosphere, staff training, the caliber of care given, and the payment structures in place.

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Hospital Care Evolution

Hospitals did not exist in their current state in the early days. Medical treatment was usually provided at home, and separate facilities known as “pet houses” were constructed to segregate the mentally sick. Quarantine stations were also built to stop the spread of contagious illnesses. During the 1800s, the affluent began to build hospitals modeled after almshouses, which offered shelter and basic treatment for low-income people, the physically and mentally sick, the homeless, and even criminals (McLane, 2021).

The advent of Medicare in the early 1960s dramatically altered the landscape of hospital treatment. This act enabled adults over the age of 65 to get medical and hospital care, with costs paid by a scheme that compensated “reasonable costs.” Concurrently, the Medicaid program was formed to help low-income persons, forcing states to develop combined federal-state programs for those receiving public assistance (National Archives, 2021). This represented the shift from hospitals serving primarily the mentally ill and destitute to institutions open to anybody eligible for social assistance programs.

Today, the United States has a broad network of hospitals providing a wide range of services. The American Hospital Association says that there are approximately 17,000 hospitals across the country. These include community hospitals as well as specialist centers for intensive care, cardiac care, newborn care, and pediatrics (Sola et al., 2020).

Hospital Environment

In the 1800s, hospitals’ primary goal was to isolate the ill rather than heal them. Hygiene was nearly nonexistent, ventilation was inadequate, and patients frequently suffered from illnesses. The objective was not to develop remedies but to keep the sick out of the healthy population (Rosenberg, 2023). 

By the 1960s, substantial progress had been accomplished. Hospitals had air conditioning, artificial lighting, and electric adjustable beds to improve patient comfort and care (Nagasawa, 2019).

As the 2000s began, the emphasis changed substantially toward patient well-being. Modern hospitals seek to create conditions that promote rehabilitation. A research conducted by Salford Royal Hospitals NHS Trust found that patients’ views of their surroundings, as well as the experiences of their visits, play an important influence in the healing process. Patients liked aspects such as longer visiting hours, the possibility for visitors to stay overnight, allowances for physical limitations, and the ability to choose their own meals and television shows (Douglas & Douglas, 2020).

Staff Education

In the 1800s, the notion of professional nurses was almost non-existent in almshouses. Nursing positions were frequently filled by women who had failed to obtain work elsewhere, including those with criminal records. This began to alter when the Catholic Church intervened, providing slightly more educated nuns to care for the ill. The Civil War of the 1860s was a watershed moment, as the requirement for experienced nurses to care for injured troops helped nursing acquire legitimacy as a respectable occupation for women (Backus, 2020). During this time, the first physicians in America received their education in European colleges before moving to the United States to instruct and educate additional doctors (Camison et al., 2022).

In the 1960s, hospital staff had grown more well-trained, with the majority of healthcare workers having graduated from US colleges. Medical programs at these colleges often require three years of advanced study, pushed by the current lack of healthcare workers (Bdaiwi et al., 2020).

Today, all hospital personnel must complete specialized training suited to their respective tasks. Physicians must finish four years of medical school, followed by the appropriate years of residency and specialty. Registered nurses must complete a four-year bachelor’s degree (Stiansen, 2020). Many businesses promote and finance Continuing Medical Education (CME) courses to help healthcare workers keep up to date on medical breakthroughs. These courses assist doctors in maintaining, developing, and expanding their knowledge and abilities, consequently increasing their professional performance and the quality of doctor-patient relationships (Park & Hong, 2022).

Level of Care

In the 1800s, medical care was founded on centuries-old ideas and traditions. Illnesses were assumed to be the consequence of internal imbalances or disturbances, and therapies frequently included attempts to expel sickness through various bodily cavities. The notion of germs and disease-carrying insects was unknown; instead, people thought that illnesses were caused by evil spirits or miasma. Despite the presence of European-trained doctors, many people chose home cures or treatments from traditional healers (Fokunang et al., 2019).

In the 1960s, the United States had established itself as the world’s healthcare leader. Patients benefitted from contemporary hospitals that had central sterilizing facilities, X-ray equipment, and laboratory autoanalyzers (Sabry, 2022). These breakthroughs enabled more accurate diagnoses and more successful therapies.

Today’s hospitals are outfitted with a wide range of advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment. From modern imaging technologies such as MRI and CT scanners to minimally invasive surgical tools and electronic health records, the goal is to provide comprehensive, efficient, and precise medical treatment.

Today Hospitals have many experts accessible for urgent treatment if necessary. Upon arrival, patients are screened to evaluate their disease’s severity and the treatment required. Acute care, usually referred to as emergency care, is offered for diseases or injuries that require immediate treatment. Hospitals are divided into units that admit patients based on the level and type of treatment necessary. These units include critical care, cardiac care, and observation units, each with a focus on distinct patient requirements and monitoring levels (Savioli et al., 2020).

Paying for Your Care

Health insurance in its modern form did not exist in the 1800s. Instead, “sickness insurance” compensated for lost income due to illness or accident by giving cash directly to the sufferer. Hospitals were sponsored by charitable donations or public obligation.

This structure began to shift in the 1940s when hospitals switched from charity institutions to those backed by commercial insurance. By this point, around 9% of the population had hospital insurance. By 1960, hospitals were accepting many types of medical insurance, resulting in significant revenue. In 1966, the government established the Medicare program for those over 65, which guaranteed compensation based on “reasonable costs.” Simultaneously, the Medicaid program was created for low-income people who were eligible for public assistance.

Today, Medicare continues to cover individuals over 65 and has been expanded to include persons with impairments. Medicaid continues to be available to low-income persons who qualify (justiceinaging 2023). In addition, there are other private insurance solutions available. According to the American Hospital Association, private insurance often pays a greater percentage of expenditures than government insurance (American Hospital Association, 2023).

Comparative Analysis

This comparative analysis highlights on the substantial advances in medicine, science, and technology over the decades. Hospitals began as philanthropic enterprises to segregate the mentally ill, physically ill, destitute, and criminals, but have now grown into a booming sector that produces millions of dollars and employs thousands of people.

Hospitals are no longer considered places of seclusion, but rather as go-to centers for any physical emergency. With cutting-edge technology, they can identify and treat a wide range of disorders. Doctors, experts, and nurses are rigorously trained to ensure that patients receive the finest possible treatment and recover quickly.

The development and growth of health insurance have played a critical part in this shift. Initially, hospitals were sustained by donations and public service. However, with the advent of health insurance in the 1940s and government programs like Medicare and Medicaid in the 1960s, hospitals witnessed a significant boost in revenue. This injection of funding enabled the development and upgrading of hospital services, resulting in the excellent levels of care we witness today.

Conclusion – BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry

The evolution of hospitals from humanitarian refuges to modern medical facilities exemplifies substantial progress in healthcare, fueled by breakthroughs in technology, education, and insurance. These advancements have converted hospitals into critical sites for comprehensive and effective medical treatment, resulting in better patient outcomes and a thriving healthcare system that continues to expand and evolve.

References

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: American Hospital Association. (2023, April). The Financial Stability of America’s Hospitals and Health Systems Is at Risk as the Costs of Caring Continue to Rise. Www.aha.org. https://www.aha.org/costsofcaring

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Backus, P. G. (2020, October 20). Female Nurses During the Civil War. American Battlefield Trust. https://www.battlefields.org/learn/articles/female-nurses-during-civil-war

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Bdaiwi, Y., Rayes, D., Sabouni, A., Murad, L., Fouad, F., Zakaria, W., Hariri, M., Ekzayez, A., Tarakji, A., & Abbara, A. (2020). Challenges of providing healthcare worker education and training in protracted conflict: a focus on non-government controlled areas in northwest Syria. Conflict and Health, 14(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13031-020-00287-9

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Camison, L., Brooker, J. E., Naran, S., Potts, J. R., & Losee, J. E. (2022). The History of Surgical Education in the United States: Past, Present, and Future. Annals of Surgery Open, 3(1), e148. https://doi.org/10.1097/as9.0000000000000148

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Douglas, C. H., & Douglas, M. R. (2020). Patient-friendly hospital environments: exploring the patients’ perspective. Health Expectations, 7(1), 61–73. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1369-6513.2003.00251.x

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Fokunang, C., Ndikum, V., Tabi, O., Jiofack, R., Ngameni, B., Guedje, N., Tembe-Fokunang, E., Tomkins, P., Barkwan, S., Kechia, F., Asongalem, E., Ngoupayou, J., Torimiro, N., Gonsu, K., Sielinou, V., Ngadjui, B., Angwafor, I., Nkongmeneck, A., Abena, O., & Ngogang, J. (2019). Traditional Medicine: Past, present and future research and development prospects and integration in the National Health System of Cameroon. African Journal of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicines, 8(3). https://doi.org/10.4314/ajtcam.v8i3.65276

https://justiceinaging.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/Raising-the-NJ-Income-Limits.pdf

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: McLane, Y. (2021). Homelessness and the Built Environment. In Routledge eBooks. Informa. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429279027

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Nagasawa, Y. (2019). Global Hospitals in 2050—A review of the historical development of hospital building studies from a global perspective. Japan Architectural Review, 3(1), 5–24. https://doi.org/10.1002/2475-8876.12131

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: National Archives. (2021, October 5). Medicare and Medicaid Act (1965). National Archives. https://www.archives.gov/milestone-documents/medicare-and-medicaid-act

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Park, G. M., & Hong, A. J. (2022). “Not yet a doctor”: medical student learning experiences and development of professional identity. BMC Medical Education, 22(1). https://doi.org/10.1186/s12909-022-03209-w

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Rosenberg, C. E. (2023). The Care of Strangers: The Rise of America’s Hospital System. In Google Books. Plunkett Lake Press. https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=Wnm2EAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT11&dq=In+the+1800s

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Sabry, F. (2022). Lab On A Chip: Low-cost point-of-care devices for human diseases diagnosis, possibly making laboratories dispensable. In Google Books. One Billion Knowledgeable. https://books.google.com.pk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=mdiTEAAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PT27&dq=In+the+1960s

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Savioli, G., Ceresa, I. F., Manzoni, F., Ricevuti, G., Bressan, M. A., & Oddone, E. (2020). Role of a Brief Intensive Observation Area with a Dedicated Team of Doctors in the Management of Acute Heart Failure Patients: A Retrospective Observational Study. Medicina, 56(5), 251. https://doi.org/10.3390/medicina56050251

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Sola, A., Rodríguez, S., Young, A., Lemus Varela, L., Villamayor, R. M., Cardetti, M., Pleitez Navarrete, J., Favareto, M. V., Lima, V., Baquero, H., Velandia Forero, L., Venegas, M. E., Davila, C., Dominguez Dieppa, F., Germosén, T. M., Oviedo Barrantes, A. N., Alvarez Castañeda, A. L., Morgues, M., Avila, A., & Fariña, D. (2020). CCHD Screening Implementation Efforts in Latin American Countries by the Ibero American Society of Neonatology (SIBEN). International Journal of Neonatal Screening, 6(1), 21. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijns6010021

BHA FPX 4002 Assessment 1 Evolution of the Hospital Industry: Stiansen, C. (2020). Analysis of current post graduate nurse practitioner residency programs. Rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu. https://rucore.libraries.rutgers.edu/rutgers-lib/64636/

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