PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM

Jenny’s Case Study Vignette

Jenny, a 35-year-old woman without children, claimed to have sleeplessness (PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM). Jenny stated that she had been experiencing sleeplessness for a few weeks. Jenny also mentioned feeling worn out and having little interest in the rigors of her former life. Jenny concludes by saying that she is fatigued and finds it difficult to concentrate on her work. Significant weight loss brought on by hunger reduction needs to be taken into account in the analysis. Jenny said that a babysitter had abused her when she was eight years old. The source for this diagnosis is the DSM-5.

The symptoms that Jenny described fit the profile of people who have major depression disorder, according to the DSM-5. Jenny is required to satisfy the minimum requirements outlined below in accordance with the DSM guidelines. At least five of the nine symptoms mentioned in the DSM must be present in the client. The same two-week period must be experienced by these symptoms(Chen & Burke, 2020).

Jenny said that she no longer feels the same level of enthusiasm or interest in the things she used to perform, even enjoyable ones. Jenny satisfies the requirements for significantly reduced interest or enjoyment in all or nearly all activities for the most of the day, practically every day (as demonstrated by observation or subjective report).

Related Assessment:
PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 1 Ego Psychology and Schizophrenia

Jenny stated that she is fatigued and finds it difficult to concentrate on her work as she previously had. One of the criteria (PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM) for Major Depressive Disorder is a reduced capacity for thought or concentration, or indecisiveness, almost daily (either on one’s own account or as witnessed by others); Jenny fits this description..Jenny’s problems are seriously upsetting her and negatively affecting her social and professional lives(Sharp & Wall, 2021). No physiological substances or medical conditions that could be causing her current symptoms have been reported. Therefore, the client’s diagnosis of major depressive disorder is appropriate.

Fred’s Case Study Vignette – PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM

Fred is a single man who studied medicine and is a licensed anesthesiologist. His family is still close to him, even though he was reared in Houston. For the past three months, Fred claims to have experienced daily panic episodes. Usually, these panic episodes occur in the early hours of the morning and late in the workday. About four months ago, Fred was robbed at gunpoint, and soon after, he started having panic attacks. Although Fred does not know of any mental health concerns in his immediate family, he does have a suspicion that his maternal grandmother may have had a history of drinking.

Fred said that when he thought about telling his family he was gay years ago, it caused him some emotional distress. Not every member of the family agreed with Fred’s announcement. For the past year, Fred has been thinking about getting married or having a commitment ceremony, and he is now going through emotional turmoil once more.

It was concluded after looking through the DSM-5 (PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM) that Fred has posttraumatic stress disorder. The client must have been exposed to real or threatened death, significant injury, or sexual violence in at least one of four ways, according to the first DSM-5 criterion for posttraumatic stress disorder(Hyland et al., 2020). In Fred’s instance, he was robbed in the subway station at gunpoint. For posttraumatic stress disorder, this act of serious injury danger is a valid requirement.. The client must have at least one intrusive symptom connected to the traumatic experience in addition to the possibility of significant damage.

The intrusion event in Fred’s diagnosis is that, as shown by his daily panic attacks (PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM) in the morning and afternoon, he has persistent, involuntary, and intrusive painful memories of the traumatic event. Since the attack, Fred has stayed away from the metro, and one of the criteria for posttraumatic stress disorder is to avoid stimuli connected to the traumatic event.

Fred may be attempting to distance himself from his family, as demonstrated by his ongoing debate over whether to hold a commitment ceremony or a wedding. One indicator of posttraumatic stress disorder is a noticeably lessened interest in or engagement in key activities, which is demonstrated by the conflict with the family(Corner & Gill, 2021) .

Fred isn’t sure if he should invite his family to the ceremony or wedding. Furthermore, Fred demonstrates the social distancing that is also a requirement for this diagnosis. The last two symptoms, reckless or harmful behavior and hypervigilance, both meet the diagnostic criteria. It is possible to conclude that Fred rides his bike to avoid hazardous circumstances because he refuses to use the subway, which is a less efficient form of transportation. Regarding careless or damaging activity, Fred knows it’s challenging to ride his bike through the streets, but he still opts for this route rather than a safer one.

Fred’s symptoms are seriously upsetting him and negatively affecting his social and professional life. No physiological substances or medical conditions that could be causing his current symptoms have been reported(Orrù et al., 2021). Consequently, the client’s diagnosis of posttraumatic stress disorder is appropriate.

Sally’s Case Study Vignette

Sally, who is twenty-three years old, works as an airline ticket agent and saves money for graduate school while living with her parents. Her parents brought Sally in because they were starting to worry about behavioral changes in her. Sally said that she didn’t have to be here and that writing on her novel at home was her main priority. As previously mentioned, Sally can be heard typing in her room till the wee hours of the morning. It’s seen that Sally doesn’t get much sleep and that her writer’s block has caused her to break a few things. Additionally, Sally bought a car, something her parents don’t think she can afford. 

Sally is certain that everything will work out once she submits her novel to a publishing agent. Sally’s brother has a history of mental health issues; he made an attempt at suicide a few years back.According to the DSM-5 diagnostic, Sally has bipolar 1. The following requirements for a manic episode must be met for a diagnosis of bipolar I disorder. Major depressed or hypomanic episodes may have come before or after the manic episode.

A distinct period of unusually prolonged high, expansive, or irritated mood and abnormally prolonged increased activity or energy is required; this period should extend for at least one week and be present for the majority of the day, almost every day (or for any length of time if hospitalization is required).. Sally’s parents have stated that she has displayed unusually high levels of energy and a continuously unpleasant mood. When there is a mood swing and increased energy, at least three signs must be present. 

Sally exhibits the following three symptoms: Sally’s expectation of a sizable advance from the publisher and her assumption that her writing will change the course of American literature are signs of her grandiosity or inflated sense of self-worth. Second, Sally doesn’t seem to need as much sleep, as evidenced by the fact that she stays up late drafting her book. Third, as demonstrated by her ability to pay for a car and her propensity for engaging in sexually suggestive behavior, unrestrained shopping sprees, and careless business ventures, Sally has demonstrated an excessive level of involvement in activities that carry a high risk of painful outcomes.

Sally’s symptoms have been documented to be extremely distressing and to be negatively affecting her social and professional life. No physiological substances or medical conditions that could be causing her current symptoms have been reported. Bipolar I is the proper diagnosis for the client as a result.

Comprehensive Examination of the Customer Fred

Posttraumatic stress disorder was identified as Fred’s diagnosis. Although there are many therapeutic alternatives available, we will just cover two ways as the recommended course of action for the purposes of this discussion. There are two established therapeutic options: interpersonal psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT). In 2020, Mayranezouli et al. For treating PTSD, cognitive-behavioral therapy is now the most successful treatment option. Though there are many different approaches, CBT seems to be the most successful based on the research that has been gathered thus far.(Fortin, et al, 2021).

In most cases, CBT entails a 12-week treatment program in which the patient meets with the therapist for 60 to 90 minutes each week to talk about the trauma and how it has affected their lives. Frequently, writing is included, with the client documenting their experiences in writing. Examining the trauma and creating constructive coping mechanisms and perspectives on the incident are the main objectives here. Fred would benefit from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) to help him view the tense events with his family in a different light and to help him create appropriate coping mechanisms for the heist. Additionally, CBT might make him stop avoiding public transit. Another suggested course of therapy is interpersonal psychotherapy.

When serious depression was first diagnosed, interpersonal psychotherapy, or IPT, was advised for the patient. IPT has been successfully treating mood disorders for forty years. (Et al., Bleiberg, 2019). Because PTSD affects interpersonal functioning, integrative physical therapy (IPT) is a logical next step in the treatment of PTSD. (Et al., Bleiberg, 2019). PTSD patients frequently struggle to get past the terrible experience and stay mired in the past. Furthermore, the fear of what lies ahead rules the future. These problems are addressed and the present is brought into focus in interpersonal psychotherapy. (Et al., Bleiberg, 2019).

Instead of taking public transit, Fred is choosing to go places on his bicycle. IPT would address his fear of public transportation. In addition, Fred experiences panic episodes every day, which he attributes to the day he was robbed at gunpoint. IPT is more concerned with how the trauma is impacting interpersonal functioning than it is with the actual trauma. Despite the fact that IPT research is still in its early stages, the data thus far indicates that IPT is just as beneficial as exposure-based treatments. (Et al., Bleiberg, 2019).

I used other information in addition to the DSM-5 criteria to support Fred’s diagnosis. Criterion A, which calls for at least one stressor, was satisfied by Fred. In this instance, Fred was directly in danger of suffering a major harm. Intrusion is a prerequisite for Criterion B. Cues reflecting parts of the incident are causing psychological pain for Fred. Avoiding stimuli connected to the trauma is criterion C. In addition to avoiding public transit, Fred might also be avoiding his family to some extent.

The significantly reduced engagement in activities and social disengagement meet Criterion D’s requirements(Moreira et al., 2022).Fred shows no enthusiasm in organizing his nuptials or commitment ceremony. The arousal and reactivity must change significantly at least twice in order to meet Criterion E. Fred satisfies this requirement since he says he made the decision to forgo using the metro. Making this choice is an example of hypervigilance. Fred believes he will be safer if he avoids the metro. Furthermore, Fred’s decision to ride his bicycle despite being aware of how challenging it is to maneuver the streets qualifies as hazardous activity under this standard. For criterion F to apply, symptoms must last for at least a month.(Moreira et al., 2022)

These symptoms have been plaguing Fred for about three months. The mental abnormality must result in clinically severe suffering or functional impairment in order to meet Criterion G. Frequent panic episodes plague Fred, and his inability to utilize public transit hinders his ability to do his job duties. The final criterion, H, states that neither a medical condition nor a substance’s physiological effects can be the source of the disturbance (Moreira et al., 2022).Although Fred does not disclose any substance use or health issues, he did mention that he believes his maternal grandpa was an alcoholic.

With this information, I could accurately diagnose Fred as a psychologist and develop a treatment plan that addresses any areas in which Fred might be lacking.

References – PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM: Chen, J., & Burke, L. M. (2020). General practitioners’ reported application of DSM major depressive disorder criteria after removal of the bereavement exclusion criterion. Death Studies, 46(3), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1782533

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM: Corner, E., & Gill, P. (2021). Psychological distress and terrorist engagement: Measuring, correlating, and sequencing its onset with negative life events, social factors, and protective factors. Transcultural Psychiatry, 58(5), 697–711. https://doi.org/10.1177/13634615211023669

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM: Hyland, P., Karatzias, T., Shevlin, M., McElroy, E., Ben-Ezra, M., Cloitre, M., & Brewin, C. R. (2020). Does requiring trauma exposure affect rates of ICD-11 PTSD and complex PTSD? Implications for DSM–5. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 13(2). https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000908

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM: Moreira, P. A. S., Inman, R. A., Hanel, P. H. P., Faria, S., Araújo, M., Pedras, S., & Cunha, D. (2022). Engagement and disengagement with Sustainable Development: Further conceptualization and evidence of validity for the Engagement/Disengagement in Sustainable Development Inventory (EDiSDI). Journal of Environmental Psychology, 79, 101729. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2021.101729

PSYC FPX 3110 Assessment 2 Diagnosing Using the DSM: Orrù, G., Bertelloni, D., Diolaiuti, F., Mucci, F., Di Giuseppe, M., Biella, M., Gemignani, A., Ciacchini, R., & Conversano, C. (2021). Long-COVID Syndrome? A Study on the Persistence of Neurological, Psychological and Physiological Symptoms. Healthcare, 9(5), 575. https://doi.org/10.3390/healthcare9050575

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